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Saint RomualdSaint RomualdLorenzo MonacoItalian (Florentine)ca. 142011.6 x 10.6 in. (29.5 x 27 cm)Egg tempera and gold on fruit wood panelPhilbrook Museum of ArtTulsa, Oklahoma<p>Don Lorenzo di Giovanni (Piero di Giovanni), called Lorenzo Monaco (mid-1370s – ca. 1425-30 Florence)</p><p>Details for the early life of the Italian miniaturist and painter called Lorenzo the Monk are scarce. Piero di Giovanni was born around 1370 and at an early age was in Florence, where he lived and worked until ca. 1425. While in Florence he gained skills as  as a miniaturist and panel painter, although he acquired his knowledge is not entirely clear. Stylistic analysis suggests that Pietro di Giovanni was associated with the workshop of Agnolo Gaddi (active 1369 – 1396) and painted the predella for the Nobili altarpiece of 1387-88. There is a record that Piero di Giovanni took the name Lorenzo when he entered the Camoldolease Order in the convent of Santa Maria delgi Angeli. By 1402, Don Lorenzo di Giovanni, then a deacon, is recorded as operating a shop in the parish Santa Bartolo in Corso. It is believed that he resided outside of the convent and was master of a private artist’s workshop that employed both monastic and secular assistants for the production of illustrated choir books, panel pictures and frescoes.</p><p>Technical analysis reveals that Lorenzo Monaco’s paintings conform to the construction procedures and recipes described in Cennino Cennini’s <em>Il libro dell’arte</em>. The monk-painter’s work with punches provides an excellent example of Cennini’s “granare a distesto,”a network of minute points that “sparkle like millet grains” against the burnished gold areas. Despite his familiarity with contemporary techniques, Monaco deviated from the norm in several respects. An unusual combination of pigments contribute to rich color effects in his altarpieces. Pigments ground to specific consistencies have been observed on <em>The Martyrdom of Pop Caius</em> (Santa Barbara Museum of Art). Fresco paintings from the Monaco workshop demonstrate his lack of familiarity with the <em>buon fresco</em> technique. The physical evidence signifying a days's work in plaster (<em>giornata</em>) is not coincident with some of his figures—in fact in some cases the <em>giornatti</em> interrupt key components of design.  Lorenzo the Monk, although underappreciated in the years following his death, is now seen as a transitional figure from the gold-ground aesthetic of the trecento to the “pure painting” of the following century.</p><p>​Although it has not been securely attributed to the master’s hand, this panel depicting the founder of the Camaldolese Order has been linked to a proposed altarpiece group connected to the Benedictine Order's Camaldolese branch. The proposed predella consists of <em>Saint Benedict</em> at the far left end followed by the <em>Annunciation</em> (Copenhagen Royal Museums), the Nativity (Vatican Pinocoteca), and finally, <em>Saint Romuald</em> at the far right. The pendant Saint Benedict is comparable in size, decorative motifs, and heightened chiaroscuro effects in the treatment of the figure.</p><p><a href="">Art and Science, Renaissance Illuminations</a> National Gallery, Washington Summary of Conservation Department research using Hyperspectral imaging to map pigments and paint binders in Lorenzo Monaco’s <em>Praying Prophet</em>, a miniature illumination in a choir book commissioned by the Camaldolese monks of Santa Maria degli Angeli.<a href="">Online Catalogue: <em>The Coronation of the Virgin</em> and the Benedetto Altarpiece</a> National Gallery, London Catalogue entries for <em>The Coronation of the Virgin</em> and related panels from the Bendedetto Altarpiece feature high-resolution, post-restoration images and links to relevant articles in the <em>Technical Bulletin</em>.<a href="">Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: <em>Abraham</em>, <em>Noah</em>, <em>Moses</em>, and <em>David</em> by Lorenzo Monaco</a> Metropolitan Museum of Art Slideshow of four panels that are considered Lorenzo Monaco’s masterpieces, despite their unknown function and original location. Reproductions include exposed bare panel edges.</p><p><a href="">Lorenzo Monaco - Cavallini to Veronese: A Guide to the Works of the Major Renaissance Painters</a>        </p><p>A comprehensive list of works by the artist and related paintings.</p><p>​Ackroyd, Paul, Larry Keith, and Dillian Gordon. “The Restoration of Lorenzo Monaco’s Coronation of the Virgin: Retouching and Display.” <em>National Gallery Technical Bulletin</em> 21 (2000): 43–57 <br></p><br><p>Buccolieri, Giovanni, Alessandro Buccolieri, Susanna Bracci, Federica Carnevale, Franca Falletti, Gianfranco Palam, Roberto Cesareo, and Alfredo Castellano. “Gold Leafs in 14th Century Florentine Painting.” <em>ArchéoSciences, Revue D’archéométrie</em> 33 (2009): 409–415.<br><br> Burnstock, Aviva. “The Fading of the Virgin’s Robe in Lorenzo Monaco’s <em>Coronation of the Virgin</em>.” <em>National Gallery Technical Bulletin</em> 12 (1988): 58–65.<br><br> Bustin, Mary, and Jane Anne Roberts. <em>Lorenzo Monaco: A Closer Look</em>. London: Courtauld Institute Galleries, 1985.<br><br> Cennini, Cennino. <em>The Craftsman’s Handbook</em>. Translated by Daniel V. Thompson. New York: Dover Publications, 1954 reprint of 1933 edition.<br><br> Ciatti, Marco, Cecilia Frosinini, and Patrizia Riitano. <em>Lorenzo Monaco, Tecnica e Restauro: l’Incoronazione della Vergine degli Uffizi, l’Annunciazione di Santa Trinita a Firenze</em>. Florence: Edifir, 1998.<br><br> Davies, Martin. <em>Catalogue of the Earlier Italian Schools</em>. 2nd ed. National Gallery Catalogues. London: National Gallery Publications, National Gallery, 1986, 305-314.</p><p>Eisenberg, Marvin. <em>Lorenzo Monaco</em>. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1989, 128-136, 206.</p><p>Gordon, Dillian. “The Altar-Piece by Lorenzo Monaco in the National Gallery, London.” <em>Burlington Magazine</em> 137, no. 1112 (Nov 1995): 723-727.<br><br> Johnson, Ben B., and Norman E. Muller. “A Study of Technical Aspects and Stylistic Sources of <em>The Maryrdom of Pope Caius</em> by Lorenzo Monaco.” <em>Archivero</em> 1 (1973): 23–56.<br><br> Muller, Norman E. “Examination and Conservation of an Altarpiece Attributed to Lorenzo Monaco.” <em>Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego Annual Report</em> (1972): 23–30.<br><br> ———. “Three Methods of Modelling the Virgin’s Mantle in Early Italian Painting.” <em>Journal of the American Institute for Conservation</em> 17, no. 2 (Spring 1978): 10–18.<br><br> Ricciardi, Paola, Michelle Facini, and John K. Delaney. “Painting and Illumination in Early Renaissance Florence: The Techniques of Lorenzo Monaco and His Workshop.” In <em>The Renaissance Workshop: The Materials and Techniques of Renaissance Art</em>. London: Antique Collectors’ Club, 2013.</p><p>Shapley, Fern Rusk. <em>Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools XIII-XV Century</em>. Vol. 1. Complete Catalogue of the Samuel H. Kress Collection. London: Phaidon Press for the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, 1966, 89-90.</p><p>Skaug, Erling. “Notes on the Punched Decoration in Lorenzo Monaco’s Panel Paintings.” In<em> Lorenzo Monaco: A Bridge from Giotto’s Heritage to the Renaissance</em>, edited by Angelo Tartuferi and Daniela Parenti, 53–58. Florence: Giunti; Firenze Musei, 2006.<br><br> Thompson, Daniel V. <em>The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting</em>. New York: Dover, 1956 reprint of 1936 edition.</p><span></span>A step-by-step description of Lorenzo Monaco’s working method based on a technical study of a panel located at the Philbrook Museum of Art. The techniques and materials outlined include the preparation of a panel support, sizing, gesso grosso, gesso sottile, underdrawing, gilding, punchwork, egg tempera painting, and sgraffito.

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