Scientific Analysis Scientific Analysis

Image Picker for Section 0
Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Image Rendition

Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.

Media Size

Cycle through size options for this image or video.

Original
50%
66%
100%
Fixed Portrait 1
Fixed Portrait 2
Cancel
Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Insert Image

Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.

Insert Video

Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.

Remove Image

Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.

Remove Video

Remove the video from the media panel.

Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory

Master's-level students complete their second-year science coursework in the newly-renovated (Summer 2018) Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory (SRAL). The second-year science curriculum, offered during two contiguous semester courses, addresses the basic theory, procedures, and capabilities/limitations associated with the spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques most commonly encountered in collections interpretation and art conservation research. Learning goals focus on understanding and using recent scientific journal publications.

These courses enable our students to gain hands-on experience in data collection, interpretation, and evaluation for a range of instrumental techniques, including Raman, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, gas- and liquid- mass chromatography (GC- and LC-MS,), pyrolysis GC-MS, and scanning electron microscopy with x-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS). Students also have access to instrumentation at the University of Delaware. For example the Advanced Materials Characterization Laboratory, the Mass Spectrometry Facility and the Surface Analysis Facility. This experience familiarizes our students with scientific methodology, proper sample preparation procedures, the challenge of accurate data interpretation, and current research in the field of cultural heritage science. A year-long materials research project (previously a Technical Study) ensures that our students have working familiarity and hands-on experience with instrumental methods of analysis as they relate to the activities of collections interpretation and conservation.

Many of these projects have contributed new scholarship to the understanding of unusual cultural materials, treatment procedures and preventive practice. The ultimate goal of our second-year science curriculum is to produce conservators who will work as informed collaborators with scientists. This year's research projects include the technical study of a paper doll house, research of a Fraktur birth and baptismal certificate, determination of the fungistatic and fungicidal effect of linalool on textiles, a study of the impact of benzyl alcohol on oil paint films, an investigation of works by Joachim Patinir and other Netherlandish painters, the scientific analysis of a Tafsir manuscript and leather case from Gambia, the characterization of nontraditional paint media in one of Robert Rauschenberg's paintings, the technical analysis of a blue Japanned chair attributed to Giles Grendey, an analytical and archival investigation of Robert Rauschenberg's Borealis metal paintings, and the study of artistic techniques and materials in a 19th-century monochromatic drawing.

Dr. Jocelyn Alcantara-Garcia, Dr Rosie Grayburn, and Catherine Matsen provide student supervision and instruction in the Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory. They are assisted by SRAL volunteers Dr. Chris Petersen and Dr Judy Rudolph.

Scientific Analysis Abstracts

2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Image Rendition

Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.

Media Size

Cycle through size options for this image or video.

Original
50%
66%
100%
Fixed Portrait 1
Fixed Portrait 2
Cancel
Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Insert Image

Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.

Insert Video

Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.

Remove Image

Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.

Remove Video

Remove the video from the media panel.

2019

 

 

Technical Study of an Attic Skyphos with Ancient Repairs Technical Study of an Attic Skyphos with Ancient Repairs 2018Cassia Balogh<p>An ancient Greek vessel that was donated to Bryn Mawr College did not come with substantiated provenance and was in poor condition due to a failing previous intervention. Analytical techniques including ultraviolet light induced fluorescence (UV), x-radiography, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to yield more information on the many interactions with humans that it has experienced. Results led to the identification of cellulose nitrate adhesive, the discovery and partial characterization of discontinuous radiopaque features in the clay body, and the supported attribution to its presumed source of the Mediterranean though not the confirmation of its specific country of origin. These results both aided in making decisions for its current treatment as well as added information to be conveyed in its use as a teaching aid and resource at Bryn Mawr College. <br></p>
A Layered History: The Dining Room Wallpapers from the Dennis Family Farm A Layered History: The Dining Room Wallpapers from the Dennis Family Farm 2018Emily Farek<p>The Dennis Farm, located in northeastern Pennsylvania’s Susquehanna County, is possibly the oldest African American owned farm property in the nation still retained by the original family’s descendants. The Dennis Farm Charitable Land Trust (DFCLT) was formed in 2001 to preserve this rare historical resource. A collection of layered wallpaper fragments from the house were brought to Winterthur Museum to help provide information on their materials and manufacture. With at least seven layers of wallpaper from just the dining room, there is a wealth of information to be analyzed within those redecorating campaigns. The scope of this project focused on analyzing the oldest wallpaper from the dining room using XRF, Raman and FTIR spectroscopies, and polarized light microscopy (PLM), and only PLM for fiber identification of the rest of the papers, which will be analyzed further at a later date. Prussian blue, synthetic ultramarine, barium sulfate, and gum Arabic were identified in the blue pigment sample of the oldest wallpaper, and gypsum and calcium carbonate were identified in the white pigment sample. It was found that animal glue was most likely used to hang this oldest paper layer, and that the paper is composed of primarily bast fibers. <br></p>
Technical Analysis of Gemini (2014) by the artist Neri Oxman Technical Analysis of Gemini (2014) by the artist Neri Oxman 2018Caitlin Richeson<p>With the advent of rapid prototyped materials and recent advances in the technology, artists, architects, and designers can now conceive of and produce complex artworks relatively instantly. </p><p>This explosion of rapid prototyping affects museum professionals as they are seeing a significant number of art and design objects produced by these processes entering their collections without full knowledge of their aging properties. One such object is Gemini, a chair designed by Neri Oxman in (b. 1976) that was acquired by SFMOMA in 2015. Gemini is constructed through both additive and subtractive manufacturing. The curved cherry wood chassis was fabricated in Brooklyn, NY by SITU Fabrication using a CNC milling method, while the polymeric nodules were printed in Israel by Stratasys using an Objet500 Connex 3 Polyjet printer. The printed components combine three different polymers, Vero Magenta, Vero Yellow, and Tango+, in 44 different combinations to achieve variations in color, opacity, and rigidity. Polymers used in rapid prototyped materials are typically proprietary, giving only general information about the ratio of ingredients. Without a complete understanding of the material components conservators are not accurately able to predict the expected material lifespan of an object. By conducting analysis to understand the material components of Polyjet polymers used in Gemini, we can better understand the material additives and degradation, and investigate if the printing method has any effect on the degradation of the material. Techniques used in the technical analysis of Gemini included Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning-electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), evolved gas analysis GC/MS, and x-ray fluorescence (XRF). <br></p>
Technical Examination of a 19th Century Aquarium (1965.2192A,B) Technical Examination of a 19th Century Aquarium (1965.2192A,B) 2018Haddon Dine<p>There was a parlor aquarium fad in the 19th century, and while there are contemporary texts on aquaria, they have not been well-researched technically. The aquarium in the Winterthur collection consists of a splash pan, octagonal tank, and a central architectural structure. It is constructed primarily of painted tinned iron, galvanized iron, and glass. While the octagonal tank shape was common, there are no comparables for this object as a whole. The technical examination of this aquarium aimed to more thoroughly characterize and understand the materials and construction, with the goals of adding to the body of knowledge on 19th-century aquaria, investigating whether this object was intended to actually hold water, and possibly providing information on whether the pieces are original to one another. Techniques used in the analysis of this aquarium include: examination in ultraviolet light, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), cross-section microscopy, scanning electron microscopy – energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Analysis identified compositional differences in the glass panes in the tank that correspond to visual differences, mercury-tin mirrors, bronze powder paint and a zinc white and barium sulfate containing oil paint. The tank sealant was found to contain a drying oil and a lead component, and a coating on the lower part of the architectural structure seems to contain a drying oil. Akageneite was identified in the iron corrosion on the tank. These findings inform treatment and display of the object, as well as indicating that the aquarium likely did not hold water in its current configuration.  <br></p>
Technical Study of a Carriage Model Technical Study of a Carriage Model 2018Leila Sabouni <p>Little is known about the history of this privately-owned carriage model. This technical examination aims to define the materials used in the production of the object in order to aid in understanding this object’s place in history. The art historical research done by the author suggests that the carriage is in the style of an 18th century vehicle, but the materials and construction do not support this date range for the model’s manufacture. The materials were analyzed using a variety of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Among the materials discovered were drying oil paint binders, commonly used mineral pigments, as well as galvanized iron sheet metal. The analyses provided materials information supporting the art historical interpretation that the model dates to the 19th century. <br></p>
Magnetic Mementos: A Technical Examination of Three Self-Adhesive Photograph Albums Magnetic Mementos: A Technical Examination of Three Self-Adhesive Photograph Albums 2018Amber Kehoe<p>This article presents information on the materials characterization of magnetic, or self-adhesive, photograph album leaves and potential deterioration pathways of the materials and photographs within them. Introduced sometime in the mid-20th century, these peel-and-stick leaves are double-sided, laminated structures composed of adhesive-coated paperboards and transparent, plastic cover sheets. </p><p>There have been no scientific studies published on magnetic photograph albums to date. The goal of this study was to identify the paperboards, adhesives, and plastic cover sheets that are in contact with photographs in three historic albums. In addition, the deterioration of the individual materials and composite structures were investigated. The technical examination of the album leaf materials included a combination of invasive and noninvasive analytical techniques including ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence photography, x-ray fluorescence, polarized light microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared </p><p>microspectroscopy, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that the album leaves were composed of laminated, bleached hardwood paperboards, rubber-based adhesives, and isotactic polypropylene or plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) cover sheets. Possible deterioration pathways of the albums were proposed. <br></p>
A Curious Coating: A Technical Study of a Sculptor’s Drawing Materials A Curious Coating: A Technical Study of a Sculptor’s Drawing Materials 2018Madison Brockman<p>There is a significant body of scholarly work on the sculptures of American artist George Gray Barnard (b. 1863-d. 1938), yet very little is published about his works on paper, now held in the University of Delaware (UD) Museum. Barnard was a prolific draftsman who made numerous concept sketches and preparatory drawings related to his sculptures, including one untitled sculptural study with an unusual shiny, golden-brown coating surrounding the main figure. In addition to fiber identification and optical microscopy, instrumental analysis with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and cross-section microscopy helped to illuminate the elemental and molecular composition of the paper substrate, the drawing media, inks, white pigment layer, and the resinous coating. This analysis has indicated the artist’s use of some traditional materials like charcoal, iron gall ink, and gesso, as well as non-traditional art materials like lithopone paint, pine resin varnish, and a small nail that could have been available in his studio or purchased at a hardware store. The artist appears to be using these materials in an interdisciplinary manner, combining the materials and application techniques of a draughtsman, painter, and sculptor, resulting in a fascinatingly complex object likely created as a concept sketch rather than a finished presentation drawing. An increased understanding of Barnard’s drawing materials provides insight into his working methods and will answer questions about other drawings in the UD collection. This study also will assist in the future treatment of this object by informing best practices based on its materials and by understanding what is artist’s intent. <br></p>
Technical Examination of Two (of the Seven) Edward Steichen In Exaltation of Flowers Murals Painted Between 1910-1914 Technical Examination of Two (of the Seven) Edward Steichen In Exaltation of Flowers Murals Painted Between 1910-1914 2018Keara Teeter<p>Edward Steichen (1879-1973) was an American painter and photographer who worked predominately in the United States and France. The focus of this paper is to identify materials and techniques used by Steichen in Rose-Geranium (1910) and Petunia-Begonia-The Freer Bronze (1913), one of the earliest and one of the latest murals painted for his In Exaltation of Flowers series. Visual observations and a multi-analytical approach were performed with ED-XRF, PLM, FTIR, GC-MS, and SEM-EDS analyses. This technical examination revealed the presence of lead white in the commercially-primed Lucien Lefebvre-Foinet canvases, and Steichen's use of gilding and modern artist oil paints (some of the pigments inferred include zinc white, cadmium yellow/orange, light cobalt violet, viridian, chrome green, cerulean blue, and a red lake). Later in his career, Steichen destroyed many of his painted works; and so, these murals show an obscure facet of the artist’s oeuvre. <br></p>
Micro Mosaic, Macro Possibilities: In Search of Plastics in a Tourist Trade Photo Album Micro Mosaic, Macro Possibilities: In Search of Plastics in a Tourist Trade Photo Album 2018Victoria Wong<p>Books and albums are often greater whole than the sum of their parts. While the significance of an album is often in its cohesion, its analysis and study is most unified when taken piece by piece. The components of a souvenir photograph album from the Grand Tour era have been studied with various analytical techniques in order to characterize materials on its covers and endsheets. The upper cover of this album features a micromosaic inset. While micromosaics are traditionally made of enamel, its dull appearance is suggestive of plastics. Lead enamels colored with arsenic pigments were identified in the micromosaic decoration through non-destructive analysis. Cotton and wood fiber with lead, chalk, and barium fillers were detected through non-destructive analysis, and analysis of samples. In studying the component parts of a photograph album and its greater historical context, we were able to invalidate the presence of plastics. </p><p> </p>
The Technical Analysis of a 1985 Quasar™ CRT MonitorThe Technical Analysis of a 1985 Quasar™ CRT Monitor2018Nick Kaplan<p>Cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors have played an important role in the development of contemporary culture. As such, they have made their way into the collections of museums and other institutions concerned with cultural heritage. They exist in these collections straddling the lines between display equipment, artwork, and objects, but in most cases their functionality is of crucial importance to the role they play.  The unique aesthetic of a CRT display has become emblematic of a particular moment in the history and yet, a CRT’s ability to product its display in inherently finite. CRTs are in large part considered as consumables that have a brief finite operational lifespan. Thus, consideration of the material lifespan of any single monitor seems to have rarely been considered.  As time moves on CRT stockpiles are drying up. Replacement is becoming increasingly difficult and conservation treatments are being devised that aim to preserve the original aesthetic of a given CRT monitor even after its internal electronics have failed. The central question at the core of these conservation efforts is whether one must choose to prioritize a CRT monitor’s existence as an object or as functional equipment.  </p><p> </p><p>In an effort to help develop a more comprehensive approach toward dealing with this question an analytical investigation of the material constituents of components present within a 1985 QuasarTM CRT monitor was undertaken. Using techniques including FTIR, XRF, SEM-EDS, and Py-GC/MS for the characterization of materials present in the monitor’s chassis, printed circuit board (PCB) substrate, and various internal electrical components, found brominated flame retardants, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and unsaturated polyester resin. These findings not only lead to a more in-depth understanding of the vulnerabilities of individual component materials, but also lead to recognition of the material interactions at work as well as the operating conditions inherent to functionality of the electrical system. <br></p>

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Image Rendition

Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.

Media Size

Cycle through size options for this image or video.

Original
50%
66%
100%
Fixed Portrait 1
Fixed Portrait 2
Cancel
Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Insert Image

Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.

Insert Video

Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.

Remove Image

Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.

Remove Video

Remove the video from the media panel.

2018

 

 

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Image Rendition

Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.

Media Size

Cycle through size options for this image or video.

Original
50%
66%
100%
Fixed Portrait 1
Fixed Portrait 2
Cancel
Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Insert Image

Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.

Insert Video

Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.

Remove Image

Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.

Remove Video

Remove the video from the media panel.

2017


 

 

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Image Rendition

Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.

Media Size

Cycle through size options for this image or video.

Original
50%
66%
100%
Fixed Portrait 1
Fixed Portrait 2
Cancel
Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Insert Image

Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.

Insert Video

Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.

Remove Image

Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.

Remove Video

Remove the video from the media panel.

2016


 

 

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Image Rendition

Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.

Media Size

Cycle through size options for this image or video.

Original
50%
66%
100%
Fixed Portrait 1
Fixed Portrait 2
Cancel
Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Insert Image

Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.

Insert Video

Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.

Remove Image

Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.

Remove Video

Remove the video from the media panel.

2015


 

 

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Image Rendition

Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.

Media Size

Cycle through size options for this image or video.

Original
50%
66%
100%
Fixed Portrait 1
Fixed Portrait 2
Cancel
Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Insert Image

Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.

Insert Video

Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.

Remove Image

Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.

Remove Video

Remove the video from the media panel.

2014


 

 

Mold and Fragrance: A Determination of the Fungistatic and Fungicidal Effect of Linalool on Textiles and an Evaluation of Any Deleterious EffectsMold and Fragrance: A Determination of the Fungistatic and Fungicidal Effect of Linalool on Textiles and an Evaluation of Any Deleterious Effects2019Melissa King <p>​As global temperatures rise and major weather events become more frequent, the risk for mold outbreaks in cultural heritage collections increases. In order to prevent mold growth, we rely heavily on energy-intensive mechanical systems to control the temperature and relative humidity, which is unsustainable and contributing to climate change. Terpenoids, such as linalool, found within essential oils are continually being examined for their fungistatic properties, and they may also be regularly found near cultural artifacts due to their common presence in fragrances. For this research, linalool was confirmed as a fungistat on inoculated and incubated woven cotton textiles. Additional cotton and silk textile samples were exposed to linalool to determine if the compound contributed to the degradation of the fibers. Due to the linalool compound's allylic structure, it can easily form hydroperoxide products, which may be damaging to objects. A multi-analytical approach was used to determine if there are any deleterious effects on cotton and silk textiles exposed to linalool vapors by comparing aged and unaged samples. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was used to look for key absorbance peak ratios that confirm oxidation degradation in the fibroin proteins of silk. The results suggest that linalool may have helped to protect the silk fiber from oxidation during artificial aging using high temperature and relative humidity, and other analytical techniques used were not showing a significant change in the textiles exposed to linalool.<br></p>
Analytical and Archival Investigation of Robert Rauschenberg’s Borealis Metal PaintingsAnalytical and Archival Investigation of Robert Rauschenberg’s Borealis Metal Paintings2019Natalya Swanson<p>​This research encompasses the first analytical investigation into Robert Rauschenberg's Borealis metal paintings (1988-92). Street Song (Borealis) (1990) was selected as a case study to characterize the materials and compare findings with archival records and three items from the Robert Rauschenberg Foundation's Source Materials collection. Samples of the coating, tarnish layers, and metal substrate were taken from Street Song (Borealis) and analyzed with microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to investigate the possible darkening of the metal substrate, tarnish layers, and glossy varnish coating. Non-destructive analysis with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence was conducted to determine the composition of the metal alloys and verify the legacy descriptions. Results identify the metal substrates as brass with high zinc content, various copper corrosion species in the tarnish layers, and the varnish as an alkyd-type industrial coating. Preliminary results concerning the tarnish layers indicate that future study with a broader sample set is required to fully understand the implications for long-term preservation.  <br></p>
Characterization and Identification of Nontraditional Paint Media and Exudite Materials from an Untitled (Night Blooming) Painting by Robert RauschenbergCharacterization and Identification of Nontraditional Paint Media and Exudite Materials from an Untitled (Night Blooming) Painting by Robert Rauschenberg2019Jennifer Myers <p>​Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008) was an American artist at the forefront of the Neo-Dada Art movement, best known for his Combines made with found objects and his influence on American Pop Art. However, he began his artistic career as a painter at the experimental Black Mountain College in western North Carolina. Here he was influenced by collaborations with many artists, color theory, constructed chance, and the potential of any material to be used as viable media. Rauschenberg created the Night Blooming series of paintings while at Black Mountain. The story of the painting describes the materials and process, which have been described variably and using terminology such as asphaltum, tar, lead paint, red lead, aluminum, oil, and latex house-paint. One of the paintings, RRF 51.016, is the subject of this multi-analytical study. In visible light, the surface exhibits areas of both crystalline and glossy exudites. The analysis revealed the likely presence of bone black and a bituminous component in the thin, overall black paint layer. One other type of carbon-pigment black paint was identified, as well as titanium white (rutile) paint. All paint samples lacked significant drying oil components and contained oxidized pine resin derivatives and a variety of filler material, supporting Rauschenberg's appropriated use of non-artist materials. The results may inform preventive measures and treatment options for this and other modern and contemporary works exhibiting degradation products or condition concerns from the interactions of the material components.<br></p>
A Holistic Analysis of a 1942-3 Tafsir Manuscript and Leather Case from Gambia, AfricaA Holistic Analysis of a 1942-3 Tafsir Manuscript and Leather Case from Gambia, Africa2019Karissa Muratore<p>​Due to the lack of scholarship on the proper handling and conservation treatment of Islamic manuscripts in general, and African-made Islamic manuscripts specifically, a scientific and ethical investigation was launched on a 1942/43 tafsir, or commentary on the Quar'an, from Gambia to gain a more complete understanding of its tangible and intangible needs and condition. Multi-analytical and imaging techniques were used to analyze the primary paper and inks of the textblock and leather of the carrying case. The paper was identified as a mechanically pulped bast fiber with a high lignin content and potentially a starch and/or resin-based sizing. In keeping with Islamic religious requirements, no proteinaceous materials were found in the textblock. However, the paper is at a high risk of continued degradation and loss of content making it the primary conservation concern. The principal inks were plausibly identified as red iron oxide and carbon-based black. These inks are in stable condition but are still at risk of loss due to the friable paper substrate. The leather was identified as goat and seems to be in good and stable condition. Though much more research can be done to add to the understanding of this manuscript's informational and artifactual content, the crucial issues of material characterization and condition have been answered satisfactorily enough to create an initial preservation and conservation plan. The most important finding of this research is that the preservation of a religious object's intangible elements are just as important, if not more so, than its physical elements.<br></p>
Technical Study of a Victorian Scrapbook HouseTechnical Study of a Victorian Scrapbook House2019Yan Choi <p>​The object in this study is a Victorian scrapbook house or paper doll house, which is a unique object from the Winterthur Library Grossman Collection and has an unknown provenance. The scraps used for composing the paper doll houses are of variety types of materials that are ephemeras such as chromolithograph, pigment-coated paper, Dresden trims and photographic prints. Such mass-produced materials during late nineteenth century are heavily understudied. Two pages from the scrapbook were selected to be examined and instrumentally analyzed to determine if the object contain potential hazardous materials and if the study could narrow the date range of the object. Hazardous inorganic materials including lead and arsenic were identified by surveying elemental composition using XRF. Some inorganic colorants and the stratigraphy of some pigment-coated papers were studied using Raman, FT-IR, cross-sectional analysis and SEM-EDS.<br></p>
Technical Examination of a Panel Painting and Investigation Into the Potential Relationship Between Works Within Joachim Patinir’s Oeuvre and Other Netherlandish WorksTechnical Examination of a Panel Painting and Investigation Into the Potential Relationship Between Works Within Joachim Patinir’s Oeuvre and Other Netherlandish Works2019Julianna Ly<p>​Bought at a yard sale for just twenty-five dollars and covered with extensive restoration materials, a Baltic oak panel painting entered the Winterthur Paintings Conservation Studio in January of 2018 with a potential attribution to Joachim Patinir (1480/1485-1524). Although art historically, the painting was determined to be stylistically outside the scope of works within Patinir's oeuvre including works produced by his Workshop, a full technical study was conducted on the original materials present to better understand the broader context, materiality, and techniques present. Multi-band imaging, a range of spectroscopic analyses, and gas chromatography, were conducted to obtain both organic and inorganic elemental information about the materials present. Dendrochronology and pigment analysis helped narrow the date of creation between 1540-1750. Overall, the stratigraphy and materials matched those used by Netherlandish painters including: a double calcium carbonate and silicate containing ground, likely carbon-based underdrawing, lead white oil bound imprimatura layer, and the final thin painted layers with pigments including smalt, azurite, lead white, ochres and iron oxides, vermillion, lead-tin yellow highlights, and discolored verdigris glazes. Continued research into late sixteenth/ early seventeenth- century artists should be continued to add to the art-historical body of knowledge surrounding the piece, as well as acknowledging the role that collaborative technical examination can play in assigning authorship.<br></p>
Artistic Techniques and Materials Analysis of a 19th-Century Monochromatic DrawingArtistic Techniques and Materials Analysis of a 19th-Century Monochromatic Drawing2019Lindsay Zachman <p>Monochromatic drawings are an often-overlooked folk art that was very popular in the United States from the middle to late 19th century.  It has been known by many names, including Grecian painting, monochromatic painting, and sandpaper painting or drawing.  It was popularized by itinerant artists and how-to guides that detailed exactly what materials to use and how to apply them.  There is a current lack of materials research on this type of artwork.   </p><p>Using a multi-analytical approach, the materials of Winterthur Museum's drawing were analyzed, finding that in large part the materials used are consistent with those listed in the historical guides. Among the materials found were lead white, marble dust, and charcoal/carbon black. Discovering what materials were actually used sheds new light on this under-studied art form, informing treatment decisions and helping to ensure its continued preservation for future generations.   <br></p>
Study of a Fraktur PaletteStudy of a Fraktur Palette2019Joanna Hurd <p>​The Fraktur palette was long believed to be composed of home-made media. Scientists and conservators from the Winterthur Museum began work to dispel this notion in the late 1970s. Their work has been carried on by subsequent generations of Winterthur staff and students, and this study aims to contribute to the growing knowledge surrounding Fraktur artistic practices. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to identify the elemental composition of pigments, ink, and paper which then guided the use of supporting instrumental analyses. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify Prussian blue and carbon black, both previously identified as Fraktur pigments, as well as red and yellow lead. Synthetic pigments PR49-2 and PG-16 were also identified using this technique and could provide further insight into 20th century restoration practices. Green pigment and binder media remained inconclusive despite testing with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The study adds to previous efforts to narrow the wide range of materials potentially used in Fraktur decoration, while identifying areas in need of further study. Understanding the materials involved in the making of this illustrated document will inform future decisions regarding its preservation, as well as contribute to the growing resources compiled by conservators and researchers that are so crucial to understanding the mechanics at play.<br></p>
Technical Analysis of a Blue Japanned Chair Attributed to Giles Grendey c. 1735, LondonTechnical Analysis of a Blue Japanned Chair Attributed to Giles Grendey c. 1735, London2019Yang Xu<p>​Technical analysis was conducted on a blue japanned chair with raised and gilt decoration, which is attributed to Giles Grendey c. 1735, London, recently accessioned by Winterthur/University of Delaware Program in Art Conservation Study Collection. This study on the painted surfaces of the English blue japanned chair reveals the materials and techniques applied to it in the 18th century, which are probably originated from the historical records and recipes from Stalker's and Parker's A Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing in the 17th century, but the modifications and variations suggest more consistency with Dossie's Handmaid to the Arts in late 18th century. <br></p>
Evaluation of the Effects of Benzyl Alcohol and 1-Phenylethanol Xanthan Gum Gelled Emulsion Cleaning Systems on Painted SurfacesEvaluation of the Effects of Benzyl Alcohol and 1-Phenylethanol Xanthan Gum Gelled Emulsion Cleaning Systems on Painted Surfaces2019Tracy Liu<p>​Benzyl alcohol is currently a popular active reagent in aqueous and solvent-based gelled emulsion systems for the cleaning of easel paintings.  A case is made to broaden the scope of active reagents to benzyl alcohol derivatives, compounds that retain the benzyl alcohol core, but that incorporate additional functional groups at either the para-, meta-, or ortho- positions on the aromatic ring or at the benzylic carbon.  This report presents initial forays in employing a single benzyl alcohol derivative, 1-phenylethanol, in aqueous gel cleaning systems and evaluating its effect on the original paint film.  These results are  compared to the effects of a control gel consisting of benzyl alcohol as its active ingredient.  Both active ingredients were gelled as 10% w/w solutions in a pH 6 xanthan gum carrier. Effects on the original paint film were evaluated using SEM to qualitatively document surface morphology changes and to measure thickness changes in cross section.  GCMS was used to quantitatively compare amounts of leached low molecular weight organic compounds.  From the cleaning tests, the benzyl alcohol gel appears to work faster than that of the derivative.  However, the two generally result in similar surface morphologies when visualizing at magnifications up to 3800X in SEM.  SEM thickness measurements revealed the benzyl alcohol cleaned areas had markedly thinner paint films, a result that aligns with the observation that the benzyl alcohol gel is a stronger swelling agent of the original paint film compared to the derivative.  GCMS analyses qualitatively furnished extracts expected from aged oil films, but the resulting data from quantitative comparisons of leached palmitic, stearic, and azelaic acids showed no consistency.  This likely reflects errors in experimental design and will need to be repeated in future studies.</p>

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Image Rendition

Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.

Media Size

Cycle through size options for this image or video.

Original
50%
66%
100%
Fixed Portrait 1
Fixed Portrait 2
Cancel
Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Insert Image

Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.

Insert Video

Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.

Remove Image

Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.

Remove Video

Remove the video from the media panel.

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Move Down

Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Move Up

Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.

Code Cleaner

Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.

Accordion is OFF

Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.

Accordion is ON

Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.

Media Right/Left-Align

Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.

Page Settings and MetaData:
(Not Shown on the Page)
Page Settings
Scientific Analysis
No
MetaData for Search Engine Optimization
Scientific Analysis
<a target="_blank" href="/Lists/SciAnalysis/AllItems.aspx" class="ms-promotedActionButton"><span style="font-size:16px;margin-right:5px;position:relative;top:2px;" class="fa fa-pencil-square-o"></span><span class="ms-promotedActionButton-text">EDIT LIST</span></a> WebPartEditorsOnly hideHeader