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St. Veronica (obverse) Chalice of Saint John the Evangelist (reverse)St. Veronica (obverse) Chalice of Saint John the Evangelist (reverse)Hans MemlingNorthern Renaissancec. 1470/1475painted surface: 30.2 x 23 cm (11 7/8 x 9 1/16 in.); overall: 31.2 x 24.4 cm (12 5/16 x 9 5/8 in.)Oil on panelNational Gallery of ArtWashington, D.C.http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb.html <p>Hans Memling (Seligenstadt, ca. 1440- Bruges, 1494).</p><p>Hans Memling, born in Germany, spent most of his lifetime in today’s Belgium, probably working as an apprentice in a local workshop. Recent scholarship argues that the work of Stefan Lochner and other German masters greatly influenced Memling’s early paintings. However, the artist’s definition of space and perspective, as well as his obvious interest in naturalism, show his close connection with the Flemish school.</p><p>One of the most interesting debates in Memling’s scholarship is the painter’s connection with Rogier van der Weyden. Technical analyses of Memling’s underdrawings support the idea that he was, in fact, acquainted with van der Weyden’s methods of work, and suggest that Memling was a member of his workshop. It has been pointed out, however, that besides van der Weyden, Memling was certainly influenced by the work of other important artists of the Flemish scene, such as Jan van Eyck and Petrus Christus.  In 1665, Memling was already working in Bruges, mainly for private patrons from Bruges as well as Florence and Lübeck. His extensive body of work indicates that he was the head of a large workshop. Memling produced mainly portraits and altarpieces for private devotion. </p><p>​This painting portrays <em>Saint Veronica</em> holding the sudarium with the face of Jesus imprinted on it at the obverse. On the reverse, Memling painted a chalice with a serpent that symbolizes poison, from which St John the Evangelist drank without getting harmed. The panel was probably part of a diptych along with the panel of <em>Saint John the Baptist </em>(obverse) and a <em>Skull</em> (reverse) now at the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. It has been suggested that this panel was commissioned by Bernardo Bembo, a Venetian ambassador in Burgundy, and that it is a testimony of Memling’s success in Italy.  </p><p><a href="http://www.eu-artech.org/files/REPORT_MOLAB_5/REPORT_MEMLING.pdf">Materials and techniques of "<em>Christ surrounded by angels</em>" by Hans Memling</a></p><p>Short article that describes the studies performed by the authors on the triptych of <em>Christ Surrounded by Angels</em>, located in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp. The article describes the use of UV-Vis techniques, X-Ray Spectrometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy of samples of the painting.</p><p><a href="http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/technical-bulletin/methods_and_materials1997">Methods and Materials of Northern European Painting in the National Gallery, 1400–1550</a></p><p>This article published in the National Gallery Technical Bulletin presents an extensive study of Northern European painting, and discusses sources, guilds, workshops and painting techniques. </p><p><a href="http://vlaamseprimitieven.vlaamsekunstcollectie.be/en/research/webpublications">Flemish Primitives - Online Publications</a></p><p>A wonderful collection of online technical and art historical publications focusing on a range of Flemish painters and their related workshops.</p><p>Ainsworth, Maryan W. "Minimal Means, Remarkable Results." In <em>Memling’s Portraits, </em>edited by Till-Holger Borchert.<em> </em>New York: Thames and Hudson, 2005.</p><p>Ainsworth, Maryan W. “Northern Renaissance Drawings and Underdrawings: A Proposed Method of Study.” In <em>Master Drawings</em>, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Spring, 1989): 5-38.</p><p>Bomford, David, ed. <em>Underdrawings in Renaissance Paintings.</em> London: National Gallery Company, 2002.</p><p>Borchert, Till-Holger. <em>Memling’s Portraits.</em> New York: Thames and Hudson, 2005.</p><p>Borchert, Till-Holger.  “Memling’s Antwerp ‘God the Father with Music-Making Angels’. ” In <em>Le Dessin Sous-Jacent dans la Peinture Colloque X, 5-7 Septembre 1993</em> (Louvain-La-Neuve: College Erasme, 1995), 153-168.</p><p>Borchert, Till-Holger. “Large- And Small- Scale Paintings and their Underdrawing in the Memling-Group.” In <em>Le Dessin Sous-Jacent et la Technologie dans la Peinture Colloque XI, </em>211-22. Louvain-La-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1995.</p><p>Borchert, Till. “Le dessin sous-jacent chez Memling.” In <em>Hans Memling au Louvre</em>, Philippe Lorentz and Till Borchert<em>, 80-90. </em>Paris: Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1995.</p><p>Borchert, Till. “Some Observations on the Lübeck Altarpiece by Hans Memling.” in <em>Le Dessin Sous-Jacent Dans la Peinture Colloque IX, </em>91-100. Louvain-La-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1991.</p><p>Campbell, Lorne. “Memlinc’s Creative Processes as Seen in His Paintings in the National Gallery, London.” In <em>Le Dessin Sous-Jacent dans la Peinture Colloque X, 5-7 Septembre 1993, </em>149-52. Louvain-La-Neuve: College Erasme, 1995.</p><p>Dunkerton, Jill. <em>Giotto to Dürer.</em>  Yale University Press, New Haven and London: National Gallery Publications Limited, 1991.</p><p>Faries, Molly. “Reshaping the Field: The Contribution of Technical Studies.” In <em>Early Netherlandish Painting at the Crossroads A Critical Look at Current Methodologies, </em>edited by Maryan Ainsworth, 70-105. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and Yale University Press, 2001.</p><p>Glatigny, Jean-Albert. "Technique de construction des panneaux flamands," In <em>La Pintura Europea Sobre Tabla Siglos XV, XVI y XVII</em>, 42-47. Madrid (?): Ministerio de Cultura, 2010.</p><p>Goetghebeur, Nicole “Étude Technique de trois Tableaux de Memling” in <em>Memling Studies, </em>261-8. Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters, 1997.</p><p>Lane, Barbara G. <em>Hans Memling Master Painter in Fifteenth-Century Bruges.</em> Turnhout: Brepols Publishers, 2009.</p><p>Ridderbos, Bernhard, Anne van Buren, and Henk van Veen (ed.), <em>Early Netherlandish Paintings Rediscovery, Reception and Research.</em> Los Angeles and Amsterdam: The J. Paul Getty Museum and Amsterdam University Press, 2005.</p><p>Spring, Marika. “The Technique and Materials of the Paintings Attributed to Memling in the National Gallery, London.” In <em>Memling Studies, </em>213-129<em>. </em>Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters, 1997.</p><p>Verougstraete, Hélene, Roger van Shoute and Maurits Smeyers. <em>Memling Studies.</em> Leuven: Uitgeverij Peeters, 1997.</p>A step-by-step description of Hans Memling’s working method based on a technical study of the St. Veronica (now located at the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC) that was originally part of a diptych. The techniques and materials outlined include the preparation of a panel support, sizing, a chalk ground, black chalk underdrawing, imprimitura, oil painting, and varnishing.

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