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The Raising of Lazarus (Altarpiece of Ciudad Rodrigo)The Raising of Lazarus (Altarpiece of Ciudad Rodrigo)Fernando Gallego and his WorkshopHispano-Flemish school.1480-1488.154.3 x 111.1 cm (60 3/4 x 43 3/4 in)Oil on panel.The University of Arizona Museum of ArtTucson, Arizona.http://www.artmuseum.arizona.edu/ <p>Fernando Gallego (Salamanca? ca. 1440- after 1507)  </p><p>Although little is known about Fernando Gallego, he is considered one of the greatest painters of fifteenth-century Spain.  Gallego most likely lived and worked in Salamanca between 1468 and 1507 and some aspects of his style suggest he studied in Castile where he was also exposed to Flemish paintings and prints. </p><p>Gallego was the head of a large workshop in the city of Salamanca where he worked in collaboration with other artists such as Pedro Bello, Master Bartolomé, and Francisco Gallego.  This prolific workshop produced a number of large altarpieces for several nearby churches, including the cathedrals of Ciudad Rodrigo and Zamora and the churches of San Lorenzo de Toro y Santa María de Trujillo. Few of the paintings attributed to him are signed and dated, but stylistic and technical studies have helped establish attributions and, in some instances, separate his work from the work of his collaborators. His last known possible commission involved the execution of the <em>Sky of Salamanca </em>(1507), an extraordinary painted ceiling found in the library at the University of Salamanca.</p><p>The pigments used by Gallego and his workshop are standard for his time, but the binding medium seems to vary from drying oil to emulsions of resins and proteins. Gallego did not gild his paintings extensively, but he preferred to use gold leaf for more subdued embellishments using techniques such as <em>estofado</em> (a Spanish term for <em>sgraffito</em>- please refer to the "gilding" section).</p><p><em>The Raising of Lazarus</em> is one of twenty-six panels that remain from the original<em>Altarpiece of Ciudad Rodrigo</em> painted by Fernando Gallego, Maestro Bartolomé and their respective workshops (the original altarpiece was dismantled in the sixteenth-century). This scene represents one of Christ’s most popular miracles in the history of art and is based in the Gospels of John (11:1-44). Lazarus was the brother of Mary and Martha, both of whom appear at the right of the tomb. When Jesus arrived in Bethany Lazarus had been already dead for four days.  The painting represents the moment when Jesus brings Lazarus back to life.</p><p>This painting was executed by Gallego along with several other assistants who were presumably apprenticed in his workshop at the time. It seems that the master was in charge of designing the figures while other sections of the landscape were done by other hands.  Infrared-reflectography (IRR) images of the underdrawing show that Gallego indicated the color of certain garments by writing the names of specific colors directly onto the panel.  This possibly served as a guide for his assistants as they began to apply colored paints various regions of the paintings. </p><p><a href="http://www.artmuseum.arizona.edu/events/event/retablo-underdrawings">Retablo Underdrawings</a></p><p>Webpage hosted by the University of Arizona Museum of Art showcasing infrared reflectograms of the entire retablo.</p><p><a href="https://originals.azpm.org/secrets/">Secrets of the Divine. The Altarpiece of Ciudad Rodrigo</a></p><p>A 54-minute documentary about the <em>Altarpiece of Ciudad Rodrigo</em> including its history the discoveries made during  its technical study.</p><p><a href="http://smu.edu/newsinfo/stories/gallego-exhibit-compare.asp">Sample of the research that unlocks 500 years of secrets</a></p><p>A website associated with the Southern Methodist University that compares four paintings of the Altarpiece of Ciudad Rodrigo with their respective underdrawings. This project was done in conjunction with the exhibition of the panels at the Meadows Museum.  </p><p><a href="http://www.getty.edu/conservation/publications_resources/pdf_publications/pdf/panelpaintings2.pdf">History of panel-making techniques</a></p><p>Publication by the Getty Institute that includes the following chapters about panel-making: “Historical Overview of Panel-Making in Central Italy” by Luca Uzielli, “Wooden Panels and Their Preparation for Painting from the Middle Ages to the Seventeenth Century in Spain” by Zahira Véliz, “Historical Overview of Panel-Making Techniques in the Northern Countries” by Jørgen Wadum, and “The Making of Panels. History of Relevant Woodworking Tools and Techniques” by Philip Walker.</p><p><a href="http://www.catedralvitoria.com/pdfs/publicaciones/30_07_05sannicolas.pdf">Retablo de la Iglesia de San Nicolas de Bari de Madrigal de las Altas Torres</a> (Spanish)</p><p>This article discusses the reconstruction done by the Fundación del Patrimonio Histórico de Castilla y León of a Hispano-Flemish altarpiece located in the Church of Saint Nicholas of Bari. The style of the remaining panels suggests that this work was executed by artists belonging to the circle of Fernando Gallego and García del Barco.</p><p><a href="http://www.mcu.es/patrimonio/docs/MC/IPHE/BienesCulturales/N8/10-El_Retablo_Santa_Maria.pdf">El Retablo de Santa Maria la Mayor de Trujillo</a> (Spanish)</p><p>This article discusses the underdrawings of the <em>Altarpiece of Santa María la Mayor</em> in Trujillo, Spain, unveiled through the use of infrared reflectography. The authors propose that only one artist was in charge of the composition as well as the underdrawings of the panels, while other artists were involved during the painting process. They also compare the style of the painting with that of the<em> Triptych of the Virgin of the Rose</em> at the Salamanca Cathedral.</p><p><a href="http://www.mcu.es/patrimonio/docs/MC/IPHE/BienesCulturales/N8/09-Fernando_Gallego_Trujillo_Estudios_fisicos.pdf">Fernando Gallego en Trujillo: Estudios Físicos </a> (Spanish)</p><p>This article edited by the Institute of Spanish Historical Heritage includes information related to the technical study of the altarpiece of Santa María la Mayor in Trujillo including x-radiographies and infrared reflectograms.  </p><p><a href="http://es.calameo.com/read/0000753357dee4271c5dc">La Pintura Europea sobre Tabla</a> (articles in Spanish, French, Italian and English)</p><p>Book that compiles several articles related to the study of panel painting in Europe between the fifteenth and the seventeenth centuries. </p><p>Antelo, Tomás, Araceli Gabaldón and Carmen Vega. “Fernando Gallego en Trujillo: Estudios Físicos.” In <em>Revista del</em> <em>Instituto del Patrimonio Histórico Español, </em>8 (2008): 61-74.</p><p>Antelo, Tomás, Araceli Gabaldón and Carmen Vega. “El Retablo de Santa María la Mayor de Trujillo: dibujo subyacente.” In <em>Revista del</em> <em>Instituto del Patrimonio Histórico Español,</em>8 (2008): 75-88.</p><p>Barry, Claire. “The Making of the Ciudad Rodrigo Altarpiece” in <em>Fernando Gallego and His Workshop. The Altarpiece from Ciudad Rodrigo, </em>edited<em> </em>by Amanda Dotseth, Barbara Anderson and Mark A. Roglán<em>.</em> Dallas: Meadows Museum, SMU and Philip Wilson Publishers, 2008.</p><p>Cabrera, José María and María del Carmen Garrido. “Dibujos Subyacentes en las obras de Fernando Gallego.” In <em>Boletín del Museo del Prado</em>, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Jan-April 1981): 27- 48.</p><p>Dotseth, Amanda W., Barbara C. Anderson and Mark A. Roglán (ed.). <em>Fernando Gallego and His Workshop. The Altarpiece from Ciudad Rodrigo</em> (Dallas: Meadows Museum, SMU and Philip Wilson Publishers, 2008).</p><p>Gabaldón, Araceli, Tomás Antelo and Carmen Vega. "Estudio radiográfico del soporte de obras de dos autores castellanos del siglo XV: Pedro Berruguete y Fernando Gallego." In <em>La Pintura Europea Sobre Tabla Siglos XV, XVI y XVII</em>, 134-38. Madrid (?): Ministerio de Cultura, 2010.</p><p>Garrido, Carmen. "Las técnicas flamencas e italianas en relación con la pintura española de los siglos XV y XVI." In <em>La Pintura Europea Sobre Tabla Siglos XV, XVI y XVII</em>, 126-33. Madrid (?): Ministerio de Cultura, 2010.</p><p>Gómez, Marisa. "Estudio analítico de la técnica pictórica. Aplicación a tablas y retablos españoles." In <em>La Pintura Europea Sobre Tabla Siglos XV, XVI y XVII</em>, 148-59. Madrid (?): Ministerio de Cultura, 2010.</p><p>Gómez, Marisa, Maite Jover de Celis. "Fernando Gallego en Trujillo: Estudios Químicos." In <em>Revista del</em> <em>Instituto del Patrimonio Histórico Español, </em>8 (2008): 49-60.</p><p>Hiniestra Martín, Rosa María. <em>La Antigua Bóveda Astrológica de Fernando Gallego. Nuevas Aportaciones y Evaluación de su Estado de Conservación.</em> Salamanca: Centro de Estudios Salamantinos, 2007.</p><p>Sanz Fernández, Francisco. “Nueva Pintura del Maestro Fernando Gallego.” In <em>NORBA-ARTE, </em>Vol. XXVIII-XXIX (2008-2009): 301-4.</p><p>Sanz Fernández, Francisco. <em>Fernando Gallego y su Taller en el Altar Mayor de Santa María la Mayor de Trujillo (Cáceres). </em>Trujillo(?): Palacio de Barrantes Cervantes S.L., 2009.</p><p>Silva Maroto, Pilar. “Fernando Gallego and the Altarpiece of Ciudad Rodrigo.” In<em>Fernando Gallego and His Workshop. The Altarpiece from Ciudad Rodrigo,</em> edited<em> </em>by Amanda Dotseth, Barbara Anderson and Mark A. Roglán<em>.</em> Dallas: Meadows Museum, SMU and Philip Wilson Publishers, 2008.</p><p>Silva Maroto, Pilar. "El Antiguo Retablo Mayor de la Catedral de Zamora. Fernando Gallego, su Taller y sus Colaboradores." In <em>Sumas y Restas de las Tablas de Arcenillas. Fernando Gallego y el Antiguo Retablo de la Catedral de Zamora</em>, edited by Rosario García Rozas, 15-47. Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León, 2007.</p><p>Silva Maroto, Pilar and Maria del Carmen Garrido. “Contribution du Dessin sous-jacent à la Connaissance des Peintres Hispano-Flamands Castillans." In <em>Le Dessin Sous-Jacent Dans la Peinture Colloque IX, </em>125-36. Louvain-La-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1991. </p><p>Véliz, Zahira. "Episodes from a Pilgrimage." In <em>Personal Viewpoints. Thoughts about Painting Conservation</em>, edited by Mark Leonard, 95-103. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, 2003.​</p>A step-by-step description of Fernando Gallego’s working method based on a technical study of The Raising of Lazarus (now located at the University of Arizona Art Museum) that is one of twenty-six panels that comprise the altarpiece of Ciudad Rodrigo. The techniques and materials outlined include the preparation of a panel support, sizing, estopa or gesso ground, black ink underdrawing, incising, imprimitura, oil painting, mordant gilding, and varnishing.

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