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Tancred Baptizing ClorindaTancred Baptizing ClorindaDomenico TintorettoItalian - Venetianca. 1586-160066 x 45 in (168.4 x 114.7 cm)Oil on canvasMuseum of Fine Arts, HoustonHouston,<p>Domenico Tintoretto (Domenico Robusti), Venice, 1560 – 1635.</p><p>Born to painter patriarch Jacopo Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti) (1519-1594), an artistic education was as readily available to Domenico Tintoretto as it was for his less recognized sister Marietta (1554-1590). Although Domenico achieved a degree of success as an independent artist, his reputation remains inextricably tied to his father’s.</p><p>Seventeen year-old Domenico was admitted to the Venetian painter’s guild in 1577 and the confraternity of painters seventeen years later. At a young age he was employed in his father’s workshop while it completed commissions at the Doge’s palace. Domenico's skilled hands joined countless others in meeting Master Tintoretto’s demand for speed using techniques that were viewed as unusual and abbreviated by Renaissance standards. Technical analysis has revealed Jacopo’s life-long devotion to the red lake pigments so important to the cloth dyeing industry on which the family moniker is based. Deviating from the common practice of the time, he applied thin lake glazes directly atop dark black or brown-colored ground to create areas of shadow. He then proceeded to build highly irregular layers of scumbled and impasted paint in rapid succession, often concluding work on drapery with intense red and orange highlights. Analysis of the works in the Doge’s palace reveals a maze of sketched preliminary drawings and revisions that assistants like Domenico deciphered and obeyed.</p><p>Policies of the Tintoretto workshop did not preclude Domenico from pursuing independent commissions, which consisted of battle scenes and religious subjects and some civic portraits. Technical analysis has revealed that the bright yellow-orange tones of Domenico’s own paintings are derived from a synthetic version of the valuable raw pigment orpiment. His incorporation of this affordable and plentiful colorant places him in the company of other Venetian painters, including his father, Giovanni Bellini, and Titian. The younger Tintoretto’s use of this pigment corroborates documentary evidence of artificial orpiment’s prevalence in the sixteenth-century Venetian market.</p><p>​In the bold and accomplished painting, Tintoretto depicts the Christian knight Tancred administering the baptismal rite for his dying adversary, who was revealed to be his Saracen love only after he removed her helmet to honor her last request. This painting’s authorship, date, and circumstances of facture have been the subject of much discussion and debate. One theory holds that Domenico Tintoretto was commissioned to design a decorative cycle based on episodes from the story of Clorinda in the romantic Torquato Tasso epic <em>Jerusalem Delivered</em> (ca. 1575) by either a Venetian or Mantuan patron. Rosanna Pedrazzi Tozzi offered three oil sketches at the British Museum as support for this theory in spite of questionable iconographical evidence. Another Tintoretto canvas tentatively described as “Guelpho wounding Clorinda” (Rhode Island School of Design) has been argued in relation to Tozzi’s proposal.</p><p>​<a href="">Tintoretto Research</a> - Kimbell Art MuseumConservation Department research carried out in conjunction with the 2001 exhibition<em>European Masterpieces: Six Centuries of Paintings from the National Gallery of Victoria, Australia</em> compares two versions of a portrait of Doge Pietro Loredan. An accompanying slideshow includes x-radiographs.</p><p><a href="">Restoring Tintoretto's </a><em><a href="">The Paradise</a> - </em>Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza in partnership with Bank of America Merrlll LynchAn in-depth online feature documenting the complete restoration of the competition painting for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in the Doge’s Palace. Includes detailed analytical studies of pigments, x-radiographs, and infrared images. The complete restoration process is described using high-resolution photographic details, slideshows, and videos.</p><p><a href="">Online Collections: <em>Apollo crowning a Poet and joining him with a Spouse, witnessed by Hercules and by other Females</em> by Jacopo Tintoretto</a> - Kingston Lacy Estate, DorsetDescription of a ceiling painting that was cleaned, analyzed, confirmed as a Tintoretto, and put on public view for the first time in 2001. Removing aged varnish has clarified the image but has left art historians at a loss for an identifiable subject. Entry includes a zoom-able photographs of the painting before and after cleaning.</p><p>Berrie, Barbara H., and Louisa C. Mathews. “Material Innovation and Artistic Invention: New Materials and New Colors in Renaissance Venetian Paintings.” In <em>Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis</em>, 12–26. Washington  D.C.: National Academies, 2005.</p><p>Brooke, Caroline. "The Re-use of Drawings in the Workshop of Jacopo Tintoretto."<em>Burlington Magazine</em>, 150, no. 1267 (Oct 2008): 677–679.</p><p>Dunkerton, Jill. “Tintoretto’s Underdrawing for <em>Saint George and the Dragon</em>.” <em>National Gallery Technical Bulletin</em> 28 (2007): 26–35.</p><p>González Mozo, Ana. “El Concepto de Dibujo En Jacopo Tintoretto: Análisis de Los Recursos Técnicos Utilizados En Algunos Cuadros Del Museo Nacional Del Prado.” In<em>Jacopo Tintoretto: Actas Del Congreso Internacional Jacopo Tintoretto</em>, edited by Miguel Falomir, 165–177. Publications of the Museo Del Prado PMP 1. Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado, 2009.</p><p>Gould, Cecil. ‘An X-ray of Tintoretto’s ‘Milky Way.’” <em>Arte Veneta</em> 32 (1978): 211-213.</p><p>Grundmann, Günter, Natalia Ivleva, Mark Richter, Heike Stege, and Christoph Haisch. “The Rediscovery of Sublimed Arsenic Sulphide Pigments in Painting and Polychromy: Applications of Raman Microspectroscopy.” In <em>Studying Old Master Paintings: Technology and Practice: The National Gallery Technical Bulletin 30th Anniversary Conference Postprints</em>, Marika Spring ed., 269–276. London: Archetype Publications Ltd., 2011.</p><p>Ilchman, Frederick. “Two Altarpieces of John the Baptist by Jacopo Tintoretto.” In <em>Studies in Venetian Art and Conservation</em>, 24–29. New York: Save Venice, Inc., 2004.</p><p>Kühn, Hermann. “Lead-Tin Yellow.” <em>Studies in Conservation </em>13, no. 1 (Feb 1968): 7-33.</p><p>Moreno, Julie C. “Tintoretto and <em>The Dreams of Men</em> at the Detroit Institute of Arts.” In<em>Paintings Specialty Group Postprints (American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works)</em>, William A. Real comp., 73–83. Washington  D.C.: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1995.</p><p>Moreno, Julie C., L. Stodulski, K. Trentelman, J. Jourdan, and L. I. McCann. “An Examination of the Materials and Methods Used in the Creation of Tintoretto’s <em>The Dreams of Men</em>.” In <em>Art et Chimie, La Couleur: Actes du Congrès</em>, 60–64. Paris: CNRS Éditions, 2000.</p><p>Mühlethaler, Bruno, and Jean Thissen. “Smalt.” <em>Studies in Conservation </em> 14, no. 2 ( May 1969): 47-61.</p><p>Nichols, Thomas. “Price, Prestezza and Production in Jacopo Tintoretto’s Business Strategy.” <em>Venezia Cinquecento</em>, 6, no. 12 (1996): 207–233.</p><p>Panczyk, E., M. Ligeza, K. Pytel, A. Kalicki, L. Rowinska, B. Sartowska, and L. Walis. “Neutron-induced Autoradiography in the Study of Oil Paintings by Tintoretto, Marieschi and Bellotto.” In <em>Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI: Symposium Held November 26-30, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts, USA</em>, Pamela B. Vandiver, Martha Goodway, and Jennifer L. Mass eds., 281–287. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society, 2002.</p><p>Plesters, Joyce. “Tintoretto’s Paintings in the National Gallery.” <em>National Gallery Technical Bulletin</em> 3 (1979): 3–24.</p><p>———. “Tintoretto’s Paintings in the National Gallery. Part II. Materials and Techniques.”<em>National Gallery Technical Bulletin</em> 4 (1980): 32–47.</p><p>———. “Tintoretto’s Paintings in the National Gallery. Part III. Technical Examination of the Four Remaining Works Attributed to or Associated with Tintoretto.” <em>National Gallery Technical Bulletin</em> 8 (1984): 24–35.</p><p>Plesters, Joyce, and Lorenzo Lazzarini. “Preliminary Observations on the Technique and Materials of Tintoretto.” In <em>Conservation of Paintings and the Graphic Arts: Preprints of Contributions to the Lisbon Congress, 9-14 October 1972</em>, 153–180. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1972.</p><p>Ridolfi, Carlo. <em>The Life of Tintoretto and of His Children Domenico and Marietta</em>. Translated by Catherine Enggass and Robert Enggass. University Park, Pa. and London: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1984.</p><p>Rossi, Paola. “I Cartoni di Jacopo e Domenico Tintoretto per i Mosaici della Basilica di San Marco.” <em>Arte Veneta</em> 48, no. 1 (1996): 42–55.</p><p>———. “Per il catalogo di Jacopo e Domenico Tintoretto: Novità e precisazioni.”  <em>Arte Veneta</em> 55, no. 2 (1999): 30–47.</p><p>Stretti, Karel. “Průzkum, Restaurováni a Technologická Výstavba Tintorettova Klaněni Pastýřů.” <em>Umení: Casopis Kabinetu Theorie a Dejin Umení Ceskoslovenske Akademie Ved</em>28, no. 3 (1980): 231–245.</p><p>Wald, Robert. “Tintoretto’s Vienna <em>Susannah and the Elders</em>. History, Technique and Restoration.” In <em>Jacopo Tintoretto: Actas Del Congreso Internacional Jacopo Tintoretto</em>, edited by Miguel Falomir ,178–187. Publications of the Museo Del Prado PMP 1. Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado, 2009.</p><p>Weddigen, Erasmus. “The Works of Tintoretto: Sewn, Designed, Patched and Cut. The Uncertainty of Canvas Measurements.” In <em>Jacopo Tintoretto: Actas Del Congreso Internacional Jacopo Tintoretto</em>, edited by Miguel Falomir, 151–164. Publications of the Museo Del Prado PMP 1. Madrid: Museo Nacional del Prado, 2009.</p><p>Wilson, Carolyn C. <em>Italian Paintings XIV-XVI Centuries in the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston</em>. Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, Houston in association with Rice University Press and Merrell Holberton Publishers, 1996, 370-377.</p><p>———. “Domenico Tintoretto’s <em>Tancred Baptizing Clorinda</em>: A Closer Look.” <em>Venezia Cinquecento</em> 3, no. 6 (July-Dec 1993): 121-138.​</p>A step-by-step description of Domenico Tintoretto’s working method based on a technical study of Tancred Baptizing Clorinda (now located at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston). The techniques and materials outlined include the preparation of a canvas support, sizing, a white ground, a dark, fluid underdrawing, transfering using a grid method, oil painting, and varnishing.

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