Upload new images. The image library for this site will open in a new window.
Upload new documents. The document library for this site will open in a new window.
Show web part zones on the page. Web parts can be added to display dynamic content such as calendars or photo galleries.
Choose between different arrangements of page sections. Page layouts can be changed even after content has been added.
Open the Navigation Management window, which can be used to view the full current branch of the menu tree, and edit it.
Move this whole section down, swapping places with the section below it.
Check for and fix problems in the body text. Text pasted in from other sources may contain malformed HTML which the code cleaner will remove.
Accordion feature turned off, click to turn on.
Accordion featurd turned on, click to turn off.
Change the way the image is cropped for this page layout.
Cycle through size options for this image or video.
Align the media panel to the right/left in this section.
Open the image pane in this body section. Click in the image pane to select an image from the image library.
Open the video pane in this body section. Click in the video pane to embed a video. Click ? for step-by-step instructions.
Remove the image from the media panel. This does not delete the image from the library.
Remove the video from the media panel.
When AMIEN was active, there was a consensus that cotton was fairly equal to linen as far as longevity is concerned.It makes sense to me that linen would be stronger because of the longer thread length.Is there any evidence from older paintings that there is a significant difference in longevity?
Move this whole section up, swapping places with the section above it.
Both are cellulose fibers which weaken with extreme age due to oxidation, acidity, and the destructive effects of painting materials, UV light and pollutants. Our conservation specialists will no doubt be better able to explain the aging mechanisms. In the short term, flax fibers (bast fiber from the plant stem) are stronger and much longer than cotton (boll fiber). The longest, strongest flax fiber is produced by spacing plants closer together to reduce branching. Flax grown for seed is spaced farther apart to encourage branching; a fiber crop is still harvested, but it's shorter and rougher than top quality "line" fiber. Lower quality linen thread is slubby, and the resulting "sack cloth" sometimes even has bits of tow in it. To obtain the full length fiber, flax is mechanically grubbed roots and all- never mowed or cut.
If I could add a small question to the original poster's query - if the fiber length and strength of linen is its main advantage over cotton, are the two fabrics equally durable once adhered to a rigid support? - J
Matthew's response above is quite helpful here but we have also sent this question along to one of our textile experts. As for the rigid support question, no, there will be no noticable difference (other than color, texture, etc.) once mounted to a rigid support.
Thanks , Kristin. -J
Here is a response from one of our textile experts:
As is so often the case in conservation the short answer is: it depends. It's true that if you compare *fibers* that linen is stronger than cotton because of greater fiber length and higher percent of crystalline structure. But the strength of a fabric is never just about fibers. Fabric is made of threads that can be thick or thin, single strands or plied, tightly or loosely twisted. The fabric can be more densely or more loosely woven. The threads and weave can be more consistent or have more irregularities. All of the structural properties of the thread and weave influence the strength and stability of the fabric. So depending on the threads and weave structures, you could have a specific cotton fabric that is stronger than a specific linen fabric. Also, fibers are often bleached or given different chemical processing during spinning or weaving, and these chemical processes can influence strength (for example, mercerized cotton has higher tensile strength than un-mercerized). With paintings, there are other factors to consider including the way the fabric is stretched and the evenness of the tension. Laura Mina
Thank you Matthew and Kristin.